According to Steven McGriff’s web page(retrieved 18:37, 19 May 2006 (MEST)), Kemp identies nine key elements
- Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.
- Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.
- Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
- State instructional objectives for the learner.
- Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.
- Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
- Plan the instructional message and delivery.
- Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
- Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.